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Edouard Vuillard's circlesPatrons & Gallerists (9)Muses & Friends (11)Artists (7)

Marcelle Aron
Marcelle Aron
Marcelle Aron
Marcelle Aron
Muses & Friends


About

Marcelle Aron, born Marcelle Reiss, appears in a number of works by Vuillard. She was Lucy Hessel’s first cousin and close friend. Her husband was the writer Tristan Bernard.
Tristan Bernhard, Louise Hessel, Edouard Vuillard, Lucy Hessel
Tristan Bernard
Writer
Tristan Bernard
Tristan Bernard
Muses & Friends
Artists


About

Tristan Bernard (1866–1947) was a popular novelist and playwright, a member of the circle of La Revue Blanche. He was born Paul Bernard in Besançon; Tristan was a pseudonym. He met Vuillard as a student at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris. After a brief career in business he turned to writing; his first work was published in La Revue Blanche in 1894, and he went on to compose numerous witty comedies and satires. His second wife was Marcelle Aron. During World War II he was interned at the Drancy deportation camp, but was released in 1943 and returned to Paris.
The Art Dealers (The Bernheim-Jeune Brothers)
Gaston Bernheim
Gallerist
Gaston Bernheim
Gaston Bernheim
Patrons & Gallerists


About

Gaston (1870–1953) Bernheim was the grandson of Joseph Bernheim, a manufacturer of artists’ paints in Besançon. In 1863 Joseph’s son Alexander (1839–1915) opened the Galerie Bernheim in Paris, exhibiting painters of the Barbizon school and, beginning in 1874, the first Impressionists. In 1906 Gaston, with his brother Josse, founded a branch of the gallery, calling it Bernheim-Jeune to distinguish it from their father’s establishment. It became a center of avant-garde painting, especially Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Vuillard began show regularly there in 1900, exhibiting with Bernheim-Jeune from 1900 to 1913. Gaston married Suzanne Adler, and late in life took the surname Bernheim de Villers.
The Art Dealers (The Bernheim-Jeune Brothers)
Josse (Joseph) Bernheim
Gallerist
Josse (Joseph) Bernheim
Josse (Joseph) Bernheim
Patrons & Gallerists


About

Josse Bernheim (1870–1941) and his brother Gaston assisted in mounting the first exhibition of works by Vincent van Gogh in Paris, held at their father’s gallery, Galerie Bernheim, in 1901. Five years later, Josse and Gaston founded the Bernheim-Jeune gallery, which became a center of avant-garde painting. The gallery showed Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works, including Renoir, Monet, Bonnard, Cézanne, Seurat, van Dongen, Matisse, Rousseau, Dufy, Vlaminck, Modigliani, and Utrillo. From 1900 to 1913 Edouard Vuillard exhibited there regularly. Josse married Mathilde Adler, sister of Suzanne Adler, Gaston’s wife. During World War II Josse took the surname Dauberville, which his sons retained.
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
Artist
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
Muses & Friends
Artists


About

The Nabi painter and printmaker Pierre Bonnard (1867–1947) was a close friend of Vuillard, and with him is perhaps the best-known artist of the group, renowned as a master of color and light.
Jos Hessel
Jos Hessel
Gallerist
Jos Hessel
Jos Hessel
Patrons & Gallerists
Muses & Friends


About

Jos Hessel (1859–1942) was a Belgian-born Frenchman, cousin of Josse and Gaston Bernheim. He worked as a journalist for Le Temps and as an art dealer, first in partnership with the Bernheims, managing the gallery Bernheim-Jeune for a time, and later independently. In the latter part of Vuillard’s career he was the painter’s principal agent and dealer, as well as a close friend. In the first decades of the twentieth century he and his wife, Lucy, formed the center of an active social and cultural circle in Paris and at their various country homes in northern France. In 1940, when France fell to the Germans, Jos and his wife fled Paris, first to Brittany, later to Cannes.
Lucy Hessel and Edouard Vuillard
Lucy Hessel
Muse
Lucy Hessel
Lucy Hessel
Muses & Friends
Patrons & Gallerists


About

Lucy Hessel (d. 1941), born Lucy (or Lucie) Reiss, was the doyenne of a lively circle of artists and writers. Vuillard met her in 1895 and they probably became lovers around 1902; their relationship lasted for the next forty years. Lucy was Vuillard’s most frequent model. When Paris fell to the Nazis in 1940, the Hessels and Vuillard fled the city together, and they were with the artist when he died.
Lulu seen sitting in an armchair with outstretched arms in the position of “Paix” (Peace)
Lulu (Lucie) Hessel
Muse
Lulu (Lucie) Hessel
Lulu (Lucie) Hessel
Muses & Friends


About

Lulu Grandjean-Hessel (1921–2004) was born Lucie Grandjean, the child of a French soldier injured in World War I who was a friend of the Hessel family. After her father’s death, Jos and Lucy Hessel adopted her. After 1930 she appears frequently in Vuillard’s paintings and occasionally served as a model for his decorative scenes—once as the fairy Titania, and once in the guise of a muse. In 1940 Lulu married Jacques Arpels, scion of the family of jewelers who owned the firm of Van Cleef & Arpels. They later divorced, and she remarried.
Henri and Marcel Kapferer in Their Dining Room
Henri Kapferer
Collector
Henri Kapferer
Henri Kapferer
Patrons & Gallerists


About

Henri Kapferer, like his brother Marcel, was a successful businessmen and passionate art patron. Originally an aeronautics engineer, he designed airplanes and founded the Compagnie Generale Transaérienne, which later became Air France. Henri and Marcel commissioned and collected a number of Vuillard’s works.
Henri and Marcel Kapferer in Their Dining Room
Marcel Kapferer
Collector
Marcel Kapferer
Marcel Kapferer
Patrons & Gallerists


About

A successful businessman, passionate art patron, and collector, Marcel went into the oil business and became director of the French branch of Royal Dutch Shell. His wife, Simone, was the daughter of Jules Aron, originally the manager of the Rothschild Bank’s Russian enterprises and later a banker in Paris. She and her husband left Paris in June 1940; they survived the war in Cannes.
Misia Natanson
Misia Natanson
Muse
Misia Natanson
Misia Natanson
Patrons & Gallerists
Muses & Friends


About

Marie-Sophie-Olga-Zenaïde Godebska (1872–1950), called Misia, was born in St. Petersburg, Rus¬sia, the daughter of a celebrated Polish sculptor. When she was a child her family moved to Belgium, then to Paris. A talented pianist, she studied with Gabriel Fauré in her youth. She married the publisher and art critic Thadée Natanson in 1893. Her glittering salon attracted most of the creative spirits of Paris—the poets Verlaine, Valéry, and Mallarmé; the writers Gide and Colette; the com¬posers Debussy and Ravel; theater luminaries such as Caruso and Diaghilev. In later years her friends were to include Picasso, Laurencin, Cocteau, and the couturier Coco Chanel. Renoir, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Bonnard, and Vuillard all painted her. In 1904 Misia and Thadée divorced. She married twice more: first Alfred Edwards, a wealthy American businessman, then the Spanish painter José Sert.
Thadée and Misia Natanson in their apart¬ment, Rue Saint-Florentin, Paris
Thadée Natanson
Patron
Thadée Natanson
Thadée Natanson
Artists
Patrons & Gallerists
Muses & Friends


About

Thadée Natanson (1868–1951) was a lawyer, businessman, journalist, collector, and art critic, son of a Polish banker who emigrated to Paris in 1878. He is best known as the cofounder, with his brothers Alexandre and Alfred, of the avant-garde cultural magazine La Revue Blanche, where he served as editor from its inception in 1889. There, he supported experimental theater and was among the first to champion the Nabi painters. He met Vuillard in 1891 and sponsored the painter’s first show, at the offices of the Revue. In 1893 he married the pianist Misia Godebska. Under his editorship the Revue became a voice of the young, progressive intelligentsia of Paris and was a leader in the effort to clear the name of the maligned Jewish army officer Alfred Dreyfus. Its circle included the Nabis, the poet Stéphane Mallarmé, the authors Octave Mirbeau, Marcel Proust, and Alfred Jarry, and the painters Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Félix Vallotton. The Revue closed in 1901 and Thadée took a job running a coal mine in Hungary. In 1904 he and Misia divorced. He and Vuillard remained lifelong friends. He was able to avoid arrest during the Occupation and died in France.
Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
Novelist, Critic
Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
Artists


About

Proust (1871–1922), the great novelist and critic of modern art at the turn of the twentieth century, moved in literary and artistic circles that overlapped with those of Vuillard. The two men knew each other, though they were not close, and met at least once, at Cabourg in the summer of 1907. Proust recalled his visit to the painter in a letter to his lover, Reynaldo Hahn (whom Vuillard painted in 1932–33): Vuillard “wore a blue workshirt,” he noted, writing a bit mockingly of the painter’s speaking style: “He says, with intensity, ‘A chap like Giotto, don’t you know, or a chap like Titian, don’t you know, knew just as much as Monet; or a chap like Raphael . . . ,’ etc. He says ‘chap’ once every twenty seconds. But he is a rare fellow.” Vuillard is thought by some to be the primary model for Proust’s character Elstir, the painter. Proust and Vuillard shared a certain sensibility, an approach to art that relied on nuance, detail, precise observation, and implied correspondences to depict real and imagined worlds.
Ker-Xavier Roussel, Edouard Vuillard, Romain Coolus, and Félix Vallotton, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Artist
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Artists
Muses & Friends


About

The painter and printmaker Ker-Xavier Roussel (1867–1944), born François Xavier Roussel, was a close friend of Vuillard, whom he had met at school at the Lycée Condorcet, and one of the core members of the Nabi group. His work, often landscapes and mythological scenes, is characterized by rich color and pattern. In 1893 he married Marie Vuillard, the artist’s sister. The couple, with their daughter, Annette, appear frequently in Vuillard’s paintings.
Sam Salz
Sam Salz
Gallerist
Sam Salz
Sam Salz
Patrons & Gallerists


About

The celebrated art dealer Sam Salz (1894–1981) was born in Austria. He settled in Paris between the world wars and established a gallery of contemporary art. His business prospered, and he began to build a significant personal collection, including Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works. In 1938, as circumstances for Jews worsened in Europe, he moved to New York, where he established himself as one of America’s most prominent art dealers. His roster of clients included many major collectors and patrons, as well as Hollywood celebrities. Jos Hessel introduced Vuillard to Salz in 1938 and he became the painter’s leading American representative. In 1939, not long before the German invasion of France, Salz and the actor Edward G. Robinson traveled to Paris to have their portraits painted by him.
Paul Sérusier
Paul Sérusier
Artist
Paul Sérusier
Paul Sérusier
Artists


About

Paul Sérusier (1864–1927), a leading French Post-Impressionist, studied at the Académie Julian, and with Paul Gauguin, his mentor. His signature work, The Talisman, painted under Gauguin in the summer of 1888, astonished and excited his fellow artists with its nearly abstract forms and vivid, nonnaturalistic color. It became the key work that prompted Sérusier, Vuillard, Bonnard, Vallotton, Denis, and their friends to found the Nabi group.
Portrait of Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Artists


About

The Post-Impressionist painter and vanguard printmaker Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901) does not fall within any narrowly defined stylistic school. Born to a wealthy, noble family, he lived a bohemian life in Paris, where he became one of the great experimentalists in the medium of lithography. He was a member of the Natanson circle and a friend of Vuillard, who painted his portrait in 1898.
Marie Vuillard
Marie Vuillard
Mother
Marie Vuillard
Marie Vuillard
Muses & Friends


About

Vuillard’s mother, born Marie Michaud, was the daughter of a textile manufacturer and designer. She married Honoré Vuillard, a military officer and later a tax inspector, in 1859. They had three children, Marie (b. 1861), Alexandre (1863–1927), and Edouard. Upon her husband’s retirement the family moved to Paris in 1877. Her husband died in 1883, and she opened a dressmaking workshop. She worked for many years as a corset maker, couturier, and dressmaker, as well as assisting her son in his photographic work.
Mother and Daughter Against a Red Background
Marie Vuillard Roussel
Sister
Marie Vuillard Roussel
Marie Vuillard Roussel
Muses & Friends


About

The painter’s older sister, Marie (b. 1861), was born in Cuiseaux, in the Jura region. The family moved to Paris in 1877. Around 1886 she began to work in her mother’s corset shop. She was a frequent model for her brother’s paintings and prints until her marriage to his friend, the painter Ker-Xavier Roussel, in 1893. They had a daughter, Annette, born in 1898, and son who died in infancy. The marriage was a stormy one, whose tensions are captured in several of Vuillard’s paintings of the family.

Patrons & Gallerists
Muses & Friends
Artists

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Marcelle Aron

Marcelle Aron

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Marcelle Aron,

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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Tristan Bernhard, Louise Hessel, Edouard Vuillard, Lucy Hessel

Tristan Bernard

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Tristan Bernhard, Louise Hessel, Edouard Vuillard, Lucy Hessel,

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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The Art Dealers (The Bernheim-Jeune Brothers)

Gaston Bernheim

Image Details

Edouard Vullard
The Art Dealers (The Bernheim-Jeune Brothers), 1912

Oil on paper, mounted on panel
McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Bequest of Frances Cain



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The Art Dealers (The Bernheim-Jeune Brothers)

Josse (Joseph) Bernheim

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Edouard Vuillard
The Art Dealers (The Bernheim-Jeune Brothers), 1912

Oil on paper, mounted on panel
McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Bequest of Frances Cain



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Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

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Pierre Bonnard ,



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Jos Hessel

Jos Hessel

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Jos Hessel,

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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Lucy Hessel and Edouard Vuillard

Lucy Hessel

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Lucy Hessel and Edouard Vuillard,

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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Lulu seen sitting in an armchair with outstretched arms in the position of “Paix” (Peace)

Lulu (Lucie) Hessel

Image Details

Edouard Vuillard
Lulu seen sitting in an armchair with outstretched arms in the position of “Paix” (Peace), 1937



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Henri and Marcel Kapferer in Their Dining Room

Henri Kapferer

Image Details

Edouard Vuillard
Henri and Marcel Kapferer in Their Dining Room, 1912

Oil on board
Private collection



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Henri and Marcel Kapferer in Their Dining Room

Marcel Kapferer

Image Details

Edouard Vuillard
Henri and Marcel Kapferer in Their Dining Room, 1912

Oil on board
Private collection



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Misia Natanson

Misia Natanson

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Misia Natanson,

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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Thadée and Misia Natanson in their apart¬ment, Rue Saint-Florentin, Paris

Thadée Natanson

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Thadée and Misia Natanson in their apart¬ment, Rue Saint-Florentin, Paris, 1897– 99

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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Marcel Proust

Marcel Proust

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Marcel Proust, 1900



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Ker-Xavier Roussel, Edouard Vuillard, Romain Coolus, and Félix Vallotton, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne

Ker-Xavier Roussel

Image Details

Alfred Natanson
Ker-Xavier Roussel, Edouard Vuillard, Romain Coolus, and Félix Vallotton, Villeneuve-sur-Yonne, 1899

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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Sam Salz

Sam Salz

Image Details

Edouard Vuillard
Sam Salz, 1939

Pastel on paper
Collection of Janet T. Salz



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Paul Sérusier

Paul Sérusier

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Paul Sérusier , c. 1890



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Portrait of Toulouse-Lautrec

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Image Details

Edouard Vuillard
Portrait of Toulouse-Lautrec, 1898

Oil on board
Musée Toulouse-Lautrec



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Marie Vuillard

Marie Vuillard

Image Details

Edouard Vuillard
Marie Vuillard,

Gelatin silver print
Private collection



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Mother and Daughter Against a Red Background

Marie Vuillard Roussel

Image Details

Edouard Vuillard
Mother and Daughter Against a Red Background, 1891

Oil on cardboard
Private collection



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